Three minutes to learn about pallets



Pallets are transport structure that supports goods and is removed in a stable manner by forklift trucks, pallet trucks, front loaders or other top devices for handling. Containerized transport prompts people to use pallets because the surface of sea containers is smooth and flat, making it easy for pallets to move.

  • Pallets are the structural basis of unit loads and can improve processing and storage efficiency.
  • Goods or transport containers are usually placed on pallets, with strapping straps, tensile parcels or pallets fixed for shrinkage packaging and transport.
  • Most pallets can easily carry a load of 1,000 kg (2,205 lbs).
  • Although most of the pallets are made of wood, they are composed of plastic, metal, paper trays. Each material has advantages and disadvantages relative to others.

Standards and specifications

Wooden pallets are usually made up of three or four trusses that support multiple decks and place cargo on them.

In pallet measurements, the first number is the length of the longitudinal beam and the second is the length of the bearing plate. A square or approximately square tray helps the load resist tilt.

Pallet Weight

North American Pallet Weight

Pallet weight generally depends upon pallet size, and the load bearing capacity of the pallet. On average, an empty wooden pallet will weigh from 30 lbs. to 70 lbs., depending on wood type (i.e. hardwood/softwood mix) and the moisture content of the wood. A standard wooden pallet (48″ x 40″ x 6″) with a static load bearing capacity of 3 tons and a 1 ton dynamic, will weigh approximately 33 lbs. to 48 lbs. Lightweight plastic pallets can weigh as little as 3 to 15 pounds, while heavier models may weight up to 30 pounds.

Maximum weight loads also depend on the pallet size and type. Weight loads for standard North American sized pallets typically are:

  • 48″ x40″ sized pallets have weight load of 4,600 lbs
  • 36″ x 36″sized pallets have weight load of 4,700 lbs
  • 42″ x 42″sized pallets have weight load of 3,700 lbs
  • 48″ x 48″sized pallets have weight load of 3,700 lbs

Note that some carriers such as Federal Express have their own weight and dimension restrictions. Fedex’s minimal weight a pallet can carry is 151 lbs. and maximum weight load is 2,200 lbs. DHL Express’ minimum is 66 lbs. and maximum weight load is 2,204 lbs.

Euro Pallet Weight

Euro pallets have standardized weight requirements set by the European Pallet Association (EPAL). Due to strict size and construction requirements, Euro pallets are heavier, with standard weights of approximately 25 kg (55.1 lb). To conform to Euro standards, the pallet must provide a safe working load of 1,500 kg (3307 lb.), and a maximum additional load of 4,000 kg when stacking (8818 lb.)

ISO pallets-dimensions (wxl,millimetres)

  • 1016x1219,north America;
  • 1000x1200,europe, Asia;
  • 1165x1165,australia;
  • 1067x1067,north America, Europe, Asia;
  • 1100x1100,asia;
  • 800x1200,europe; Fits many doorways;

* Iso:international for Standardization

North American Pallets (wxl,millimetres)

  • 1016*1219,grocery, many others;
  • 1067*1067,telecommunications, Paint;
  • 1219*1219,drums;
  • 1219*1016,military,cement;
  • 1219*1067,chemical, beverage;
  • 1016*1016,dairy;
  • 1219*1143,automotive;
  • 1118*1118,drums, the
  • 914*914,beverage;
  • 1219*914,beverage, Shingles, packaged Paper;
  • 889*1156,beverage, Shingles, packaged Paper;
  • 1219*508,retail;

European Pallets (millimetres)

  • 800mm*1,200 mm*145 mm,
  • 1,200 mm*1,000 mm*144 mm,
  • 1,000 mm*1,200 mm*144 mm,
  • 800mm*600 mm*144 mm,
  • 600mm*400 mm,
  • 400mm*300 mm.

About Botanical Quarantine

As a result of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC abbreviation), pallets that cross national borders must isolate insect and plant diseases that invade species through carrier materials.

Pallets made of untreated wood do not conform to ISPM 15. In order to meet the requirements, pallets (or other wood packaging materials) must meet the registration criteria and must be processed under approved supervision in any of the following ways:

  • Heat-treated wood must be heated to a minimum core temperature of 56°c (132.8°F) for at least 30 minutes. The tray processed in this way has the initials HT near the IPPC logo;
  • Chemical fumigation of wood must be fumigated with methyl bromide. The tray processed in this way is preceded by an initials MB near the IPPC logo. Since March 19, 2010, the use of methyl bromide as a treatment for ISPM15 has been banned in all E[19]U member states. This is due to the potential damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer.

The treated wood tray must be imprinted on two opposite sides, indicating the HT used for heat treatment or the MB used for methyl bromide treatment.

Classification of pallets

Although the pallets are available in a variety of sizes and configurations, all pallets fall into two broad categories: Block Pallet and Stringer Pallet.

Block pallets are generally considered to be stronger and more durable than Stringer Pallet.

Sort by material

The cheapest pallets are made of cork and are often thought to be consumable and can be discarded as garbage with other wrapping elements. These pallets are simple longitudinal girder trays that can be lifted from both sides.

The general hardwood block tray, plastic tray, and metal tray can be raised from four sides.

Paper trays, also known as "ecopallets", are commonly used for light loads, but enhanced optimized paper trays have gradually taken possession of the wood tray market.

Steel pallets are strong and can be used for heavy loads, high stacking loads, long-term dry storage, etc., and are commonly used in military munitions, accounting for less than 1% of the market. Materials include carbon steel, stainless steel, and aluminum.

Aluminum pallets are stronger than wood or plastic, lighter than steel, and resistant to weather, decay, plastic creep, and corrosion. They are sometimes used for air transport, long-term outdoor or offshore storage, or military transport.

Plastic pallets are usually made of new HDPE or recycled PET (beverage bottles). They are usually very durable, last 100 or more times, and are resistant to weathering, decay, chemicals, and corrosion. The advantages of plastic pallets relative to wooden pallets include ease of disinfection, odor resistance, flame retardant, longer service life, durability, and better product protection, non-splitting, and lighter weight, thus saving transportation and labor costs, making them safer, greener, and easily disinfected for international transport.

Production of pallets

The production process of plastic pallet

High-pressure injection molding, structural foam molding, thermoforming, compression molding, rotary molding, Profile extrusion

Production process and required woodworking equipment for wooden pallets

Pallet Material ->

Material selection (may be used machine: Cut-off saw, Optimizing sawing) ->

Cutting pallet material (long plate block cutting: Cut-off saw; Short Plate start cutting: double end trim saw) ->

Sanding (when wood have mildew or dust): Sanding machine ->

chamfering: chamfer machine ->

Notching : notching machine ->

Nailing: Nail machine ->

Printing -> Fumigation->Finished

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