Pallets are transport structure that supports goods and is removed in a stable manner by forklift trucks, pallet trucks, front loaders or other top devices for handling. Containerized transport prompts people to use pallets because the surface of sea containers is smooth and flat, making it easy for pallets to move.
About Botanical Quarantine
As a result of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC abbreviation), pallets that cross national borders must isolate insect and plant diseases that invade species through carrier materials.
Pallets made of untreated wood do not conform to ISPM 15. In order to meet the requirements, pallets (or other wood packaging materials) must meet the registration criteria and must be processed under approved supervision in any of the following ways:
The treated wood tray must be imprinted on two opposite sides, indicating the HT used for heat treatment or the MB used for methyl bromide treatment.
Wooden pallets are usually made up of three or four trusses that support multiple decks and place cargo on them.
In pallet measurements, the first number is the length of the longitudinal beam and the second is the length of the bearing plate. A square or approximately square tray helps the load resist tilt.
North American Pallet Weight
Pallet weight generally depends upon pallet size, and the load bearing capacity of the pallet. On average, an empty wooden pallet will weigh from 30 lbs. to 70 lbs., depending on wood type (i.e. hardwood/softwood mix) and the moisture content of the wood. A standard wooden pallet (48″ x 40″ x 6″) with a static load bearing capacity of 3 tons and a 1 ton dynamic, will weigh approximately 33 lbs. to 48 lbs. Lightweight plastic pallets can weigh as little as 3 to 15 pounds, while heavier models may weight up to 30 pounds.
Maximum weight loads also depend on the pallet size and type. Weight loads for standard North American sized pallets typically are:
Note that some carriers such as Federal Express have their own weight and dimension restrictions. Fedex’s minimal weight a pallet can carry is 151 lbs. and maximum weight load is 2,200 lbs. DHL Express’ minimum is 66 lbs. and maximum weight load is 2,204 lbs.
Euro Pallet Weight
Euro pallets have standardized weight requirements set by the European Pallet Association (EPAL). Due to strict size and construction requirements, Euro pallets are heavier, with standard weights of approximately 25 kg (55.1 lb). To conform to Euro standards, the pallet must provide a safe working load of 1,500 kg (3307 lb.), and a maximum additional load of 4,000 kg when stacking (8818 lb.)
ISO pallets-dimensions (wxl,millimetres)
North American Pallets (wxl,millimetres)
European Pallets (millimetres)
Although the pallets are available in a variety of sizes and configurations, all pallets fall into two broad categories: Block Pallet and Stringer Pallet.
Block pallets are generally considered to be stronger and more durable than Stringer Pallet.
While many purchasing and shipping managers find themselves in favor of one type of pallet over the other, there are a lot of factors to consider before choosing a block pallet vs stringer pallet for your products. After all, pallets are a critical element responsible for safeguarding your products, making them easy to move, and keeping your production lines running. Pallets are the foundation of your unit load, whether you’re shrink wrapping them, strapping them, shipping them, or simply storing them.
In fact, wood pallets are such a vital part of the supply chain that choosing the correct pallet design can make or break (literally) your shipments and storage.
Fortunately, there are two basic choices: block pallet vs stringer pallet.
The block pallet gets its name from the blocks that form its base. There are typically 9 blocks in a block pallet, with a solid wood block placed in each of the four corners, in the center of each side of the pallet, and in the center of the pallet itself to support the unit load.
A block pallet is also known as a “four-way” pallet because the tines of a pallet jack or forklift can access and lift it from all four sides of the pallet. Block pallets can be designed with or without bottom deck boards.
Block pallets are commonly thought to be stronger and more durable than stringer pallets because they utilize both parallel stringers and perpendicular blocks, but as you’ll see from the head-to-head test below, that’s not necessarily true.
Stringer pallets are the most commonly used pallets in the United States and are so named because they use stringers to support the unit load. Stringers are the boards that are sandwiched between the top and bottom deck boards and are typically made out of 2 x 4’s or 3 x 4’s.
Stringer pallets are generally thought of as “two-way” pallets, meaning a forklift or pallet jack can only access them on two sides, but stringer pallets can be notched (for a forklift) or chamfered (for a pallet jack) on the non-accessible sides to allow for four-way entry. Although the most common size for a stringer pallet is 48” x 40”, they can be designed to virtually any size.
Type 1 Pallets
Type 1 pallet is most widely used and needed by most industries. The deck boards and stringers are both 120cms in length. the pallet is the two-way entry and non-reversible to bear a load on only one surface. It can be utilized in a number of ways for slinging and tying down objects loaded on it.
Type 2 Pallets
Type 2 Pallets are four-way entry block type pallets that are 100cms long and 120cms wide. They are the most commonly used pallets that can be moved by forklifts or hand trucks.
Type 3 Pallets
Type 3 Expandable Pallets are two entry types. They are less expensive and can be utilized for dispatching loaded materials even on an ont-time use only.
Type 4 Pallets
Type 4 Pallets are reversible and can be made two ways or four ways. They are, however, for moving by forklift only. Being reversible, either face will hold a full load. In this case, plywood is used as deck boards.
Type 5 Pallets
Type 5 Pallets are heave duty, bolted and reversible they can be used with most types of handling equipment except hand trucks.
Type 6 Pallets
Type 6 Pallets are of a notched stringer design which makes them very versatile four-way pallets. Notching is performed by our automatic notcher machine.
There are several considerations when choosing between a block pallet design and a stringer pallet design. Here are a few of the things you should think about.
What product is being shipped?
Different products require different specifications for both shipment and storage. For example, pallets for the food & beverage industry have different requirements than pallets used to ship automotive parts. Some products require the pallets to be treated against mold or pests, while that’s not necessary for others.
In addition, some industries require specific pallet sizes and may require either block or stringer pallets for transport. If you’re not sure if a particular pallet size is required for your products, take a look at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for clarification.
Lastly, your product may require a particular wood material for your pallets. While most pallets are made from southern yellow pine, heavier products may necessitate the use of hardwoods, and certain industries prefer pallets made from other woods.
Where is the product being shipped?
Where your product is being shipped is a major consideration when it comes to deciding between block pallet vs stringer pallet design. While stringer pallets are the most commonly used pallets in the United States, other countries more commonly use block pallets.
Additionally, different countries have different standard-sized pallets. While the standard pallet size is 48” x 40”, the same is not true of many other countries. You may also want to consider any specific size requirements needed for your product’s destination. For example, will it need to fit through a standard doorway or will a forklift be available when your products get to their destination?
What’s the weight of the product being shipped?
Whether you choose a block pallet vs a stringer pallet, it must be capable of supporting the weight of your product. In some cases, a custom pallet design is the only way to ensure that your product’s weight will be properly supported.
What kind of strain will the pallet be under?
Often the strain a pallet must endure isn’t evaluated until there’s a failure, but it’s something you should definitely consider as you decide whether you want to use a block pallet vs a stringer pallet.
As you can see, there are a lot of things to consider when you’re choosing the right pallet for your products. Be sure to think it through before you make a decision.
As we discussed earlier, it’s a commonly held belief that block pallets are stronger and more durable than stringer pallets.
And it’s important to take all the factors we’ve discussed into consideration before you decide on a block pallet vs stringer pallet design. The manufacturer you choose can also make a huge difference in the dependability of your pallets, as we’ve seen from the lab tests above.
The cheapest pallets are made of cork and are often thought to be consumable and can be discarded as garbage with other wrapping elements. These pallets are simple longitudinal girder trays that can be lifted from both sides.
The general hardwood block tray, plastic tray, and metal tray can be raised from four sides.
Paper trays, also known as "ecopallets", are commonly used for light loads, but enhanced optimized paper trays have gradually taken possession of the wood tray market.
Steel pallets are strong and can be used for heavy loads, high stacking loads, long-term dry storage, etc., and are commonly used in military munitions, accounting for less than 1% of the market. Materials include carbon steel, stainless steel, and aluminum.
Aluminum pallets are stronger than wood or plastic, lighter than steel, and resistant to weather, decay, plastic creep, and corrosion. They are sometimes used for air transport, long-term outdoor or offshore storage, or military transport.
Plastic pallets are usually made of new HDPE or recycled PET (beverage bottles). They are usually very durable, last 100 or more times, and are resistant to weathering, decay, chemicals, and corrosion. The advantages of plastic pallets relative to wooden pallets include ease of disinfection, odor resistance, flame retardant, longer service life, durability, and better product protection, non-splitting, and lighter weight, thus saving transportation and labor costs, making them safer, greener, and easily disinfected for international transport.
Two Way, Double Deck, Flush, Non-Reversible Stringer Pallet
This two-way entry pallet has bottom boards to permit transporter and forklift truck handling.
The wider spacing on the bottom of the boards is utilized to reduce the amount of lumber and weight while at the same time retaining the physical advantages of double Decker pallets.
Two Way, Double Deck, Flush, Non-Reversible Stringer Pallet
This pallet or skid is usually classified as a stringer pallet. Single deck means the pallet has only top deck boards and the term non-reversible indicates that they cannot be used properly when turned upside down. Often referred to as skids, which are pallets with no bottom deck boards, they are the most economic pallet to build and take up less space because they can be interlocked or nested during storage.
They are useful for densely concentrated loads when bottom deck boards are not essential and typical uses include dairy, paper, brick, soda, and certain building materials that are not subject to crushing failure.
Two Way, Double Deck, Flush, Reversible Stringer Pallet
This stringer pallet has deck boards spaced identically on the top and bottom which permits the pallets to be reversed.It contains more wood than other styles and is thus very stiff. The bottom deck assists in distributing the bearing forces and so this type of pallet is often utilized with loads that are susceptible to crushing failures. They can only be handled with forklift trucks.
Partial Four-Way, Double Deck, Flush, Non-Reversible Stringer Pallet
This partial four-way entry stringer pallet is the most common in Saudi Arabia. It is versatile, permitting four-way handling with forklifts and two-way handling with pallet trucks or transporters.
Two Way, Single Deck, Single Wing, Stringer Pallet
This two-way entry, single deck, single-wing, non-reversible stringer pallet consists of top deck boards that protrude beyond the stringers and are designed for use with straddle forklift trucks, cargo slings, bars as well as conventional forklift trucks and transporters. They permit the use of narrower aisles in warehouses where proper material handling equipment is available. An added feature of the wing is that it can assist in the securing of stretch wrap when applied to unit loads.
Two Way, Double Deck, Single Wing, Non-Reversible Stringer Pallet
This pallet is similar to the two-way, single deck, wing style, however, with the addition of bottom deck boards, they are much stiffer and thus more durable. In this style, the top deck boards extend over the outside edge of both inside stringers (the wing) while the bottom deck boards remain flush with the stringer edges.
Two Way Double Deck, Double Wing, Reversible Stringer Type Pallet
This two-way design, the double-wing pallet is reversible and thus has the same amount of top and bottom deck boards. Due to the extension of the deck boards beyond the stringers, it is often referred to as the strongest pallet design.
Full Four Way, Double Deck, Flush, Non-Reversible Block Pallets
Block pallets are the most common style of pallets used in Saudi Arabia. The vast majority of block pallets have nine blocks which are located at the four corners, mid-way across the width, and at the geometric center of the pallet. Due to the fact that they allow for lift truck fork and transport entry in all directions, they are referred to as full 4 way.
Euro Pallets (1200×800)
Euro Pallet is user-friendly, thus used for shipping purposes. Handling them is not a daunting task as they can be navigated easily. Are widely used in many industries. The standard size is 800x1200x144mm
Uses stringers between the top and bottom boards.
Uses blocks between the top and bottom boards instead of stringers. It has openings at all four pallet sides sufficient to admit hand-pallet jacks; full four-way entry access.
A pallet built with the boards and stringers or blocks flush along the sides of the pallet is the standard style; all edges of the pallet are square. (A skid can be flush).
A pallet built with matching top and bottom board layout; the pallet can be on either side and work the same; generally, a 2-way pallet option.
A pallet constructed with minimal spacing between the top boards; boards are touching side by side. (A skid can have a tight-top)
Plywood Top Pallet
The top of the pallet uses plywood instead of boards; the thickness of plywood is determined by the user. (A skid can have a plywood top)
A pallet customized to fit in the Customer’s warehouse racking.
Components used are of stronger quality such as doubled 2×4 stringers, thicker or wider boards. A skid can be made heavy-duty. (The diagram is a Heavy-Duty Pallet with Top-Overhang).
Industry Standard 48” Long by 40” Wide, 4-way entry “Repaired” pallets; there may be variance in board types and spacing.
Pallet Material ->
Material selection (may be used machine: Cut-off saw, Optimizing sawing) ->
Cutting pallet material (long plate block cutting: Cut-off saw; Short Plate start cutting: double end trim saw) ->
Sanding (when wood have mildew or dust): Sanding machine ->
chamfering: chamfer machine ->
Notching : notching machine ->
Nailing: Nail machine ->
Printing -> Fumigation->Finished
They are two kinds of cutting machines according to different pallet materials.
A. Cut off saw
B. Double-end trim saw
A sanding machine is necessary when wood materials have mildew or dust.
This treehouse perched between four trees in a backyard. Although all the cladding is pallet wood, the structural wood for the deck and frame are all properly treated structural pine.
There is a fireman's pole, a slide, a climbing rope, a bucket lift, and a zipline.
Step 1: The Deck Frame
Step 2: The Deck
Step 3: The House Frame
Step 4: The Pallet Cladding
Step 5: The Roof
Step 6: Finishing Off